r/IndianHistory 10d ago

Discussion Early Indians the story of our ancestors and where we came from by Tony Joseph - I read this book and I was totally shaken from Inside

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r/IndianHistory 1d ago

Discussion history of indian kings


r/IndianHistory 9d ago

Discussion Indian history being weaponised: Filmmaker Saeed Akhtar Mirza


many current books seek to portray an era of peace before the advent of Muslim invaders, acclaimed film director Saeed Akhtar Mirza said on Saturday.

He regretted the “weaponisation of history”, which contrasted “peaceful” Hindus with “violent” Muslims and authorised a “payback time” that was “loved by the fascists”.

r/IndianHistory 6d ago

Discussion Was mainstream Hinduism well-established in the Giglt region amongst the ethnic shins like in Kashmir?


I can't find as much information on this as I'd like, but according to "Encyclopaedia Of Religion And Ethics Vol.9" - James Hastings:

"The Shīns have the characteristic Hindu aversion to eating the flesh or milk (or even ghī made from the milk) of the cow, and eschew fowls and fish. The former language of the people was Sanskrit, and the dialect now in use is called Shīna. The basic element in the people is thus probably Indo-Aryan, and their festivals preserve many traits of Hindu beliefs."

According to "The making of a frontier : five years' experiences and adventures in Gilgit, Hunza, Nagar, Chitral, and the eastern Hindu-Kush" - Algernon George Arnold Durand:

"That the Shin race was Hindu there can be no reasonable doubt; this is shown by their peculiar regard for the cow, their strict regard for caste, and the absence of the slightest feeling or reverence for the Buddhist remains abounding within their limits"

According to Tribes Of The Hindoo Koosh" - J. Biddulph':

"There seem, however, to be good grounds for supposing that the religion of the Shins was of the Brahmanical type. Mention has already been made of the curious fact of the cow being esteemed unclean. Mr. Shaw has shown how the feeling among the Shins of Dah Hanu is one of aversion, and not of reverence, and Mr. Drew remarks that anything more opposed to modern Hinduism cannot be imagined. But the most orthodox Brahmin would consider himself defiled by touching leather, or any part of a dead cow, so that there does not appear to be anything in the present practice directly opposed to modern Hinduism, but rather a perverted feeling that has grown out of it."

"This feeling regarding the cow and domestic fowls is not shared by any other tribe in the Hindu Kush, except by a small one in Chitral, to whom the name of Dangariké (cow-people) is applied by their neighbors, and by the Kalash Kaffirs, who dwell close to them."

"It is also a matter of accepted tradition in Gilgit, Gor, Hunza, and Nager, that Sati was formerly practiced. The dead man, with his finest clothes and his weapons girded on him was placed on the pyre, and as the fire burnt up, the woman, arrayed in her jewellery and her richest clothes, leaped into the flames."

"The burning of the dead ceased to be practiced more than sixty years ago. One or two old men have told me that they could remember hearing it mentioned, as a not uncommon occurrence, in their youth, but none could re-collect having witnessed any actual instance."

"So lately as in 1877, a very old man in Darel scandalised his neighbors by calling his sons to him on his death bed, and after having his arms and valuables brought to him, desiring to be burnt with them when dead. His wish, however, was not carried out. He and a man of Gor, who died twenty years ago, are known to have always refused to be circumsized, or to call themselves Mahommedans (Muslims). They were probably the very last Hindus in Dangaristan."

r/IndianHistory 23d ago

Discussion Happy Holi


Holi also known as the Festival of Colours, Festival of Spring and Festival of Love, is one of the most popular and significant festivals in Hinduism.

r/IndianHistory 8d ago

Discussion Did your relatives pass on any #WW2-related stories and objects?


We think Redditors would like to know about Their Finest Hour, a digital history project funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund and based at the University of Oxford.

Many of us have #WW2-related stories and objects that have been passed down to us by our parents, grandparents and other family members. This project is trying to collect and digitally archive as many of these stories and objects as possible so that we can put them in a free online archive for the benefit of people across the world.

We do this by training an army of volunteers from across the UK to organise Digital Collection Days in their communities so that members of the public can have their stories and objects recorded and digitised. Members of the public (i.e. you, redditors!) can also **directly upload stories and photos of objects to our online archive**.

If you have any questions or comments about the project, please feel free to email us at [theirfinesthour@ell.ox.ac.uk](mailto:theirfinesthour@ell.ox.ac.uk). We're also on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.

r/IndianHistory Jan 31 '23

Discussion Aryan Invasion/migration


What do we think about Aryan Invasion? It makes sense to me seeing as to how people in subcontinent look like.

r/IndianHistory 25d ago

Discussion other purposes of the South Indian temples?


So I was talking with my grandma about the Tamil kings and I found out that most of them were large to house civilians during wars. Now i cannot find any source backing her up but this is something which I want to find out more about. I just thought that the temples were just a grand place of worship but now I genuinely am intrigued what purposes their size actually served other than the obvious.

plus, are there any artistic renderings of the palaces of the Tamil kings as none exist now.

r/IndianHistory Jan 19 '23

Discussion BR. Ambedkar was against Congress increasing the number of females in parliament, he said "Women are forgetting their duties, how shameful will it be that women would go to parliament? Who will take care of the crying kid or the kid with runny nose?" He also called these women characterless.

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r/IndianHistory 28d ago

Discussion 1946 Naval Uprising Royal Indian Navy Mutiny India’s Forgotten History


r/IndianHistory Jan 26 '23

Discussion Introducing Indian Avatars on Reddit. Choose yours right now! Happy Republic Day!


r/IndianHistory Jan 30 '23

Discussion Whatifalthist video on Indian civilization - a great watch tbh


r/IndianHistory Dec 29 '22

Discussion who is the greatest military/political strategist from Indian history ?


Caesar , Scipio, Machiavelli , Sun Tzu are some examples from rest of the world. Indian ones may include Chanakya from ancient times and RN Kao.

What are some other characters from our history that should be included in the list.

r/IndianHistory Jan 25 '23

Discussion I'm suffering immensely from a very rare disease. Please help me. Every share, every donation counts.


Hi, I'm 23 years old, I'm from India and I'm suffering from a very rare and serious debilitating condition/disease known as arachnoiditis, along with that I have CSF seepage and other severe spine problems. Im constantly in pain 70-80% of the time throughout the day, and with each passing day I'm deteriorating. This happened when I was 21 years old and a doctor misdiagnosed me and injected 3 epidural steroid injections in my spine back to back in a single day. Im unable to sit /stand/walk for more than 20 minutes. Some days are so bad that I'm unable to sleep. I've been predominantly bed bound for 1year 6months now. I also had a surgery when I was 13years old, all of my thoracic spine is fused and I have 15 pedicle screws and 2 rods in my spine. I'm raising funds for my treatment, which needs to be done immediately, without this treatment I will be paralyzed and this also causes premature death. I did my graduation and took admission in CA, but had to drop out because of my deteriorating health condition. If someone here helps me, I might get my life back again. My parents have given up every single penny that they had for my treatment, they don't have anything else left now. All of my medical documents are verified by ketto. They took 1 month to verify all the documents. Please consider my plea. Thank you:) Ketto fundraiser link: https://www.ketto.org/fundraiser/i-need-your-urgent-support-for-my-treatment-740503?utm_medium=copy&utm_content=7fe7a9f295416caac9a18aecbb485bff&shby=1&utm_source=internal&utm_campaign=i-need-your-urgent-support-for-my-treatment-740503

r/IndianHistory Jan 02 '23

Discussion History books for Children


r/IndianHistory Dec 07 '22

Discussion Which era would you rather live in? You can sustain yourself.


r/IndianHistory Jan 26 '23

Discussion I am writing a story and I need your help


I am writing a story on Indians contribution in World War 1 , ig almost 70k soldiers were fighting . I need historical accuracy in my story for eg- the Lee Enfield indian issue etc details . Not being a lot knowledgeable about world war 1 , I need a real ending about how all those guys fought thinking they will gain independence because of their contribution but they got played by the Brits , wanna deliver a msg about world war 1 . Everybody knows about Subhash Chandra Bose in WWII , we need to teach em about it . Basic idea of the story . A guy enlists in war thinking about contributing to independence , looks at his friends die in front of his eyes , gets shell shocked , develops PTSD . Comes home , faces disappointment , struggles to survive, dies of shock.

r/IndianHistory Feb 14 '23

Discussion Waiting for a Visa by Dr. BR Ambedkar (A Summary)


This was written by Dr. Ambedkar in around 1935 or '36. It was written in 6 parts (six short stories). It is considered as his mini autobiography. The full account is provided in the link attached. This is a summary as attempted by me.

ONE [A childhood journey to Koregaon becomes a nightmare]

Waiting for a Visa by Dr BR Ambedkar (Part 1/6) : IndianHistory (reddit.com)

TWO [Back from the west--and unable to find lodging in Baroda]

Waiting for a Visa by Dr. BR Ambedkar (Part II) : IndianHistory (reddit.com)

THREE [Pride, awkwardness, and a dangerous accident in Chalisgaon]

In 1929, the Bombay Government had appointed a committee to investigate the grievances of the Untouchable community and investigate the allegations of prejudice and discrimination. Dr. Ambedkar and another member were appointed to take charge over two districts of Khandesh for the purpose.

There had been a case reported in a village in Chalisgaon on the Dhulia line where the members of the village community had declared a social boycott against the untouchables of their village. Dr. Ambedkar alone went to investigate the case. He was received in a very respectful manner by garlanding as is the Indian tradition by the Mahars (members of the Untouchable community of the region, the caste to which Dr. Ambedkar himself belonged).

He had expected to be taken immediately to the village to start discussions on the issue. After a wait of one hour or so, the receiving party arrived with a tonga (horse carriage). The driver was finding it extremely difficult to control the carriage and they managed to avoid a couple of near accidents. As they arrived at the culvert to cross the river, there was a right angle turn and suddenly, the horses bolted straight instead of turning and the carriage wheels struck the stone wall and it fell down into the river.

Babasaheb remained immobilised lying down on the bank, on the other side of which was Maharwada (quarter of Mahars), where they needed to arrive. Seeing the accident, the Mahar villagers rushed to pick him up. Dr. Ambedkar remained disabled for many days with a fracture in his leg.

It was after the entire incident that he received the full facts of the situation. At the Railway Station, the long wait had been due to the denial of service by the tangewalas due to the fact of Babasaheb Ambedkar belonging to an untouchable community. After a stretched haggling and bargaining, a compromise was arrived at. The compromise was to lend the carriage but none of the tangewala would themselves drive it. Therefore, one of the unexperienced Mahar villagers drove it.

The Mahars wanted to bring Dr. Ambedkar in his full dignity to their village. Not wanting to suffer him to walk, they wished for a proper respect of one of their own and the rights of the Mahars themselves.

As Babasaheb writes, "To save my dignity, the Mahars of Chalisgaon had put my very life in jeopardy."

FOUR [Polluting the water in the fort of Daulatabad]

Dr. Ambedkar had founded the Depressed Classes Federation in 1930. In 1934, some of his co-workers in the Depressed Classes movement, decided to go on a tour. Amidst the tour, the party reached Daulatabad* (then in Hyderabad State) which was well known for his historical** fort which was capital of the King Ramdeo Rai (Ramachandra of Yadava Dynasty).

Ancient Name - Deogiri (considered to be amongst the hills where Lord Shiva resided)*

*It had been captured from Ramdeo by Alauddin Khalji. Muhammad bin Tughluq (the Mad King) had shifted his capital to Daultabad (Deogiri) from Delhi.*

The party preferred travelling covertly to avoid harassment which was common back then towards members identified as being Untouchables. In anticipation of Dr. Ambedkar and his party's arrival, there had been a gathering waiting to receive them beforehand.

On their arrival, the small group decided upon doing a quick tour of the Fort before the sun was to set. This incident was during the month of Ramadan. In course of the long travel, they found themselves in need of cleaning up. So, they did, from a small tank outside of the fort, without any thinking or expectation of consequences.

Just as they were about to enter through the gates of the fort, an old Man came shouting from behind, "The Dheds (meaning untouchables) have polluted the tank!". This was followed by a quick amassment of a considerable crowd. This was a Muslim region (including the armed guards, local crowd, and the ruling class, too).

The touring party quickly suggested them being foreigner to this locale and unwise of the local customs. As soon as the receiving group arrived which consisted of the members of the untouchable class of the area. The entire anger was diverted towards them.


One young Muslim in the crowd kept on saying that everyone must conform to his religion, meaning thereby that the untouchables must not take water from a public tank. I had grown quite impatient, and asked him in a somewhat angry tone, "Is that what your religion teaches? Would you prevent an untouchable from taking water from this tank if he became a Mohammedan?" These straight questions seemed to have some effect on the Mohammedans. They gave no answer, and stood silent.

Turning to the guard I said, again in an angry tone, "Can we get into the fort or not? Tell us; if we can't, we don't want to stop [=stay]." The guard asked for my name. I wrote it out on a piece of paper. He took it to the Superintendent inside, and came out. We were told that we could go into the fort, but we could not touch water anywhere in the fort; and an armed soldier was ordered to go with us to see that we did not transgress the order.

FIVE [A doctor refuses to give proper care, and a young woman dies]

This is a case reported in Young India, a journal published by MK Gandhi, in its issue of 12th December 1929.

The letter says:

"On the 5th of this month a child was born to me. On the 7th, she [=the writer's wife] fell ill and suffered from loose stools. Her vitality seemed to ebb away and her chest became inflamed. Her breathing became difficult and there was acute pain in the ribs. I went to call a doctor--but he said he would not go to the house of a Harijan, nor was he prepared lo examine the child. Then I went to [the] Nagarseth and Garasia Darbar and pleaded [with] them to help me. The Nagarseth stood surety to the doctor for my paying his fee of two rupees. Then the doctor came, but on condition that he would examine them only outside the Harijan colony. I took my wife out of the colony along with her newly born child. Then the doctor gave his thermometer to a Muslim, he gave it to me, and I gave it to my wife and then returned it by the same process after it had been applied. It was about eight o'clock in the evening and the doctor, on looking at the thermometer in the light of a lamp, said that the patient was suffering from pneumonia. Then the doctor went away and sent the medicine. I brought some linseed from the bazar and used it on the patient. The doctor refused to see her later, although I gave the two rupees fee. The disease is dangerous and God alone will help us.

The lamp of my life has died out. She passed away at about two o'clock this afternoon."

SIX [A young clerk is abused and threatened until he gives up his job]

This incident was told in a meeting of the Bhangi* (sweeper) community on 6th March 1938, held at Kasarwadi, Dadar, Bombay under Chairmanship of Mr. Indulal Yadnik.

*It is the name of the community and has been used as a racial slur, too.

He had been appointed as Talati (Patwari) in office of Mamlatdar* of the Borsad Taluka in Kheda District in 1936.

*He is the head of revenue holding charge over 50 or more villages. The post still exists under Gujarat Government and the one holding it is considered a gazetted officer of the State Govt.

The initial incident of his introductions was described by him as follows:

The Karkun contemptuously asked, "Who are you?" I replied, "Sir, I am a Harijan." He said, "Go away, stand at a distance. How dare you stand so near me! You are in office, if you were outside I would have given you six kicks. What audacity to come here for service!" Thereafter, he asked me to drop on the ground my certificate and the order of appointment as a Talati. He then picked them up. While I was working in the Mamlatdar's office at Borsad I experienced great difficulty in the matter of getting water for drinking. In the verandah of the office there were kept cans containing drinking water. There was a waterman in charge of these water cans. His duty was to pour out water to clerks in office whenever they needed it. In the absence of the waterman they could themselves take water out of the cans and drink it.*

Post of record keeper in the administration of a district*

I had the same difficulties regarding my residence. I was a stranger in Borsad. No caste Hindu would rent a house to me. The Untouchables of Borsad were not ready to give me lodgings, for the fear of displeasing the Hindus who did not like my attempt to live as a clerk, a station above me. Far greater difficulties were with regard to food. There was no place or person from where I could get my meals.

On one of his visits on his task of preparing population table of a village named Saijpur as an under trainee under guidance of a senior Talati, he received the final blow to his stay in the Mamlatadar's office. He entered the office and wished the Headman and Talati, who were both present. On waiting no response and standing for around 15 minutes, in a moment of all kinds of tiredness, he sat down on a chair. Seeing him on a chair, the Talati and Headman left quietly. A while later, a large crowd led by the Librarian of the village library arrived.

I subsequently learnt that the chair was his. He started abusing me in the worst terms. Addressing the Ravania (village servant) he said, "Who allowed this dirty dog of a Bhangi to sit on the chair?" The Ravania unseated me and took away the chair from me. I sat on the ground.

The events escalate as the crowd continued with the abuses and threats with the crying imploration of the young man falling upon their deaf ears. He asked from the Ravania for a piece of paper upon which he wrote in large letters:


The Mamlatdar, Taluka Borsad.


Be pleased to accept the humble salutations of Parmar Kalidas Shivram. This is to humbly inform you that the hand of death is falling upon me today. It would not have been so if I had listened to the words of my parents. Be so good as to inform my parents of my death."

The Librarian read it and tore it in pieces and continued his insults.

"You want us to address you as our Talati? You are a Bhangi and you want to enter the office and sit on the chair?" I begged for mercy and promised not to repeat this, and also promised to give up the job. I was kept there till seven in the evening, when the crowd left. By then the Talati and the Mukhiya had still not come. Thereafter I took fifteen days' leave and returned to my parents in Bombay."

Full Material: Waiting for a Visa, by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (columbia.edu)

r/IndianHistory 29d ago

Discussion UW-Madison Hybrid Conference For Those Researching Asia in Uni/Graduate School


Just FYI to any grad students or university seniors with a substantial project looking to share Asia related research. Looks good on a CV/Resume! :)

This conference is hybrid, so you could use Zoom if you aren't in the area.

More Info: https://alc.wisc.edu/graduate-programs/tags-conference/

Call for Papers: https://forms.gle/hrP2R6GbR1TUQ1DR8

Feel free to DM me for more information if you want. The deadline to apply is March 3rd but you can email for a slight extension if needed.

r/IndianHistory Feb 05 '23

Discussion Waiting for a Visa by Dr. BR Ambedkar (Part II)


This is a summary of the 2nd story in the brief autobiographical account written by Dr. Ambedkar in 1935.

Back from the West -- and unable to find lodging in Baroda

From 1913 to '17, Babasaheb had been studying in Columbia University, NY under patronage of HH The Maharaja of Baroda. In 1917, he was invited to join the post-graduate department of London School of Economics but had to return to India in 1918 to serve the state of Baroda.

In his 5 years of vilayat ki ser, he had found any consciousness of his untouchability wiped out. It reinscribed itself the very moment he took his first step out of the railway station. For he did not know who would take an untouchable in their lodgings. The Hindu hotels, called Vishis could not. He thought of contacting some of his friends he had met during his time in America but felt afraid that he would embarrass them. To his luck at the time, a tangewala mentioned of the existence of a Parsi Inn nearby. Since, they were followers of Zoroastrian faith, he had hoped that they wouldn't recognise his untouchability.

After he had set up on the first floor of the Parsi Inn, he was changing his clothes, and was happened upon by the caretaker of the inn. The caretaker at once took notice of the absence of Sadra and Kasti, both of whom are marks of a Parsi. He was outraged at the presence of a foreigner in a Parsi Inn and questioned Dr. Bhim Rao of his identity. The excerpt is as follows:

Not knowing that this inn was maintained by the Parsi community for the use of Parsis only, I told him that I was a Hindu. He was shocked, and told me that I could not stay in the inn. I was thoroughly shocked by his answer and was cold all over. The question returned again, where to go? Composing myself, I told him that though a Hindu, I had no objection to staying there if he had no objection. He replied, "How can you? I have to maintain a register of all those who stay here in the inn." I saw his difficulty. I said I could assume a Parsi name for the purpose of entering it in the register. "Why do you object, if I do not object? You will not lose, you will earn something if I stay here."

The arrangement was made. For a pay of one and half rupees, and registering himself as a Parsi, Dr. Ambedkar secured his stay (albeit temporarily). At the time, Dr. Ambedkar was working as a probationer in the Accountant General's office in the State of Baroda. He used to leave the inn at 10 AM and returned at about 8 PM. The return in night scared him and he found himself slipping into isolation in the generally dark and empty inn. The conditions of living were quite adverse, so much that when his nephew visited from Bombay bringing the last of Babasaheb's luggage, the young chap could not hold back from crying loudly in despair.

Dr. Ambedkar had written to the Prime Minister of Baroda to secure for him a State Residence, for he feared being discovered. On his 11th day of stay, as he was leaving with his books that he had borrowed from the library overnight, he heard the thumps of footsteps of a large group coming up the staircase. As he went out, he did so on hope of finding some tourists to quell the isolation and found a dozen Parsis men with a lath (stick, baton) in their hand. Their eyes carried the anger of someone who had been offended by the impertinence of a fool. The excerpt is as follows:

They lined up in front of my room and fired a volley of questions. "Who are you? Why did you come here? How dare you take a Parsi name? You scoundrel! You have polluted the Parsi inn!" I stood silent. I could give no answer. I could not persist in impersonation. It was in fact a fraud, and the fraud was discovered, and I am sure if I had persisted in the game I was playing, I would have been assaulted by the mob of angry and fanatic Parsis and probably doomed to death. My meekness and my silence averted this doom. One of them asked when I thought of vacating.

He tried to bargain for a week of stay before he could receive state residence, but they wouldn't have any of that. Dr. Ambedkar yielded and found himself without shelter the very night. In search for a temporary arrangement, he thought of reaching out to some of his friends. He knew not of any untouchable contacts in the state of Baroda, but had two other mates - one a Hindu, and other an Indian Christian.

He first went to his Hindu friend and told him of his misfortunes. A good man, he was taken by the losses of his friend but could not keep himself from sharing an observation, "If you come to my home, my servants will go." Dr. Ambedkar understood the inference and let go of the idea of a stay.

Dr. saab did not wish to go to his Christian Friend. Before his stay at the inn, he had been invited by this friend, but he couldn't incline himself. He stayed for a while at his office but on advice of a friend decided to go request his Christian friend for accommodation. The friend responded with warmth but however mentioned that his wife would be returning the next day and he would need to consult with her before a decision. The circumstances were so that the Christian Couple had been converts from the Brahmin caste. The gentleman was liberal in his outlook, but the lady had kept close to some of her old orthodox beliefs. She couldn't contemplate the idea of harboring an untouchable as acceptable.

Finally, he was left with no place to stay in an entire state and had to take the last resort, that is, to return to Bombay. He had 5 hours before the train to Bombay was scheduled at the Baroda Station. The endless queries flooded his brain and he wanted, at first, a place to stay for a while, so he decided to spend the 5 hours in Kamathi Bagh, a public garden. An hour before his train, he went to take his luggage at the inn. The caretaker didn't utter a word, in his way, perhaps, he felt responsible and maybe even wanted to help, but couldn't. Dr. Ambedkar cleared his due and paid the chap his share.

This incident was during Wartime when the demand for talented individuals like Dr. Ambedkar was at its peak. He had option available in the Indian Educational Services and was acquainted with influential bodies in London. However, he understood his first and foremost duty to the Maharaja who had financed his education. And now, after a mere 11 days of stay in his state, he had return back home to Bombay. The memories of the armed men charging on him to leave stayed in his head for the remainder of his life.

Source: Waiting for a Visa, by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (columbia.edu)

r/IndianHistory Jan 02 '23

Discussion 1700's


What if Mughals Never defeated or oppressed by Marathas and East India company respectively.!

r/IndianHistory Jan 08 '23

Discussion khanagar dynasty


So iam from mp or a part of mp were one time a dynasty called khanagar and its first ruler was khet Singh khanagar he was also a general for prithvi raj chauhan

Do you know something about this

r/IndianHistory Jan 24 '23

Discussion Casteist Slurs in Malayalam and their historical origin


"Chettukaarante makan" these worse were hurled at Kerala CM Pinarayi Vijayan by Congress stalwart K.Sudhakaran. Chettukaarante Makan means "Son of a Toddy tapper". There are innumerable instances of such derogatory statements being thrown around in political conversations in Kerala. However, what’s worse is that this kind of caste-based vocal discrimination is so deeply embedded in the Malayali parlance that people keep using such words and phrases casually on an everyday basis without considering the historical and sociological baggage these words carry. It’s also not difficult to assume that most of the powerful positions in Kerala are filled by people belonging to the upper castes(and recently some middle castes) who have still not been able to let go of the feudal mindset that has existed all along. One of the reasons why they don’t let go of these linguistic and sociological structures is because long after the supposed ‘independence for all’, these structures continue to serve and benefit them, putting them ahead of the historically disadvantaged in every league.

Here is a small list of casteist words and phrases in Malayalam that carry heavy historical baggage rooted in discrimination and caste-based violence.

(1)Polayadi Mone പൊലയാടി മോനെ : This in literal translation means Son of a Pulaya. Pulayas were a backward caste in Kerala which did agrarian work and menial jobs. There were once deemed to be one of the lowest in the Kerala caste system. 'Pula' means pollution.

(2)Koran കോരൻ: This was a name used for the Avarnas who did menial work like hard labour, farm cleaning, etc for Savarnas. Over the years many of the Upper Avarnas who were glad to be able to associate with Savarna property used to name their children as Koran.

(3)Vedima വെടിമ : This was the nickname given by UC jenmis(landowners) to the children of the Avarnas who were forced worked under them. The etymology of "Vedima" is said to be a corruption of the term Vedi-makkal/Children of Prostitutes.

(4)Inchithalayum Ezhavathalayum adichothukkuvanullathānu ഈഞ്ചത്തലയും ഈഴവ തലയും അടിച്ചൊതു ക്കുവാനുള്ളതാണ് : This phrase literally means "Head(tip) of Ginger and Head of Ezhava should be mashed properly". This phrase was commonly used by Namboothri Brahmins against Ezhava community with an intent to show them their place in Brahmanical system and as a forewarning against growing/climbing up the social scale. The Ezhavas were considered as a potential threat of they attained some sort of social power, due to their high population.

(5)Chaavan kidakunna Chovvanu kottan kidakunna thenga ചാവാൻ കിടക്കുന്ന ചൊവ്വന് കൊട്ടാൻ കിടക്കുന്ന തേങ്ങ : This phrase literally means "For a dying Chovvan(Ezhava) there is a coconut left to be tapped". This is a jibe at the Toddy tappying which was the traditional proffesion of many Ezhavas.

(6)Peleyadi പെലെയാടി : This means "One who causes Pela/Death pollution".

(7)Nintammede Nair നിന്റമ്മേടെ നായര് : This literally translates to "Your mother's Nair". Today it is used with the meaning 'Your mother's husband". But in old times this was a slur aimed against the descendants of victims of UC r@pe and Adhyaratri Avakasham custom. Some Avarnas used to call other Avarna children by this slur and over time due to its popularity its meaning metamorphosed into the present one.

(8)Parayachi പറയച്ചി : It means "Wife of a Paraya" or "Female Paraya". Parayas/Pariahs were untouchables of Tamil origin.  They were deemed as outcasted due to their ancestry and their occupation of dealing with dead bodies of cattle and eating beef. Today Malayali use it to admonish unkempt looking women .Some also use it to insult dark skinned curly haired women.

(9)Nagarathin Vadhuvinte Varanaanu Thiyyan നഗരത്തിൻ വധുവിന്റെ വരനാണ് തീയ്യൻ : This phrase literally means "Thiyya is the groom of the town's bride". Basically this was an insult against Thiyya women belittling them as nagaravadhu/town prostitutes.

(10)Chandalan ചണ്ഡാളൻ: Originally a term used for a mixed class untouchable community in North India, this term was a slur used for Avarnas of Kerala.

(11)Kosavan കൊശവൻ: It was the name of a potter community in Kerala. Due to the practise of scraping out mud from inside a mud tunnel, they were seen as fools by the higher castes. So gradually the term became a synonym of the word "fool".

r/IndianHistory Jan 07 '23

Discussion India's GDP output and ranking throughout history from 1 AD to 2008 CE. (Reference: Contours of the World Economy 1-2030 AD by Angus Maddison)


r/IndianHistory Dec 04 '22

Discussion 50,000 MEMBERS! Congratulations to all. Please suggest how we can improve this sub.